Implicit Revolution 1: How We Develop Implicit Bias

40 years ago, memory researchers showed us that patients with amnesia could form new memories… implicitly. This sparked an ongoing revolution in research on the hidden mind: how it learns, how it influences us, and how it can be measured and changed.

Listen to Part 2 of Implicit Revolution here.


Claparède, E. (1951). Recognition and “me-ness” In D. Rapaport, Organization and pathology of thought: Selected sources (pp. 58-75). (Original French publication 1911).

Fowler, R.A., Sabur, N., Li, P., Juurlink, D. N, Pino, R., …, & Martin, C. M. (2007). Sex- and age-based differences in the delivery and outcomes of critical care. CMAJ, 177(12), 1513-1519.

Goyal, M. K., Kuppermann, N., & Cleary, S. D. (2015). Racial disparities in pain management of children with appendicitis in emergency departments. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(11), 996-1002.

Graf, P. Squire, L. R., & Mandler, G. (1984). The information that amnesic patients do not forget. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10(1), 164-178.

Higgins, E. T., Rholes, W. S., & Jones, C. R. (1977). Category accessibility and impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 141-154.

Jacoby, L. L., Kelley, C., Brown, J., & Jasechko, J. (1989). Becoming famous overnight: Limits on the ability to avoid unconscious influences of the past. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(3), 326-338.


The Implicit Revolution Part 1 was created and developed by Mahzarin Banaji and Olivia Kang with funding from PwC and Harvard University.

Narration by Olivia Kang, featuring Professor Mahzarin Banaji (Harvard University)

Sound Editing & Mixing by Evan Younger

Music by Miracles of Modern Science

Artwork by Olivia Kang